American Petroleum Institute. The primary oil and natural gas trade association in the United States. API operates a voluntary licensing and certification program that allows engine oil marketers to use the API Engine Oil Quality Marks if their products meet specific requirements. FA-4 describes certain xW-30 oils specifically formulated for use in select high-speed four-stroke cycle diesel engines designed to meet 2017 model year on-highway greenhouse gas (GHG) emission standards.
These oils are formulated for use in on-highway applications with diesel fuel sulfur content up to 15 ppm. Refer to individual engine manufacturer recommendations regarding compatibility with API FA-4 oils.API FA-4 oils are blended to a high temperature high shear (High Temperature High Shear. A measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow under conditions resembling highly-loaded journal bearings in fired internal combustion engines, typically 1 million s–1 at 150°C.) A measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosity flows less easily. range of 2.9cP-3.2cP to assist in reducing GHG Mobile sources - Pollutant exhaust gases created by the combustion of fuel. Water and CO2 are not included in this category, but CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons are and are thus subject to legislative control. All three are emitted by gasoline engines, while diesel engines also emit particulates that are regulated. Stationary sources - The release of sulfur oxides and particulates from power stations that can be influenced by fuel composition. Local authorities control the sulfur content of heavy fuel oils used in such applications.. These oils are especially effective at sustaining emission control system durability where particulate filters and other advanced after-treatment systems are used.
The main physical and chemical requirements for API FA-4 oils are shown below:
|HTHS viscosity||CEC L-36-A-90||cP||≥ 2.9 and ≤ 3.2|
|A product of the combustion of metals commonly found in detergents. As a lubricant property, sulfated ash content is a measure of metal content (usually Zinc, Calcium, and Magnesium) and allows formulators to stay within specified limits in order to minimize the negative effects of abrasive ash particles. Sulfated ash is determined by charring the oil, treating the residue with sulfuric acid, and evaporating to dryness, the result being expressed as % by mass.||American Society for Testing and Materials. An organization that develops international standards for industry, including test methods, specifications, and best practices. Many tests that certify a lubricant to a specification are overseen by ASTM. D874||%wt||≤ 1.0|
|Phosphorus||ASTM D4591||%wt||≥ 0.12|
|Sulphur||ASTM D4591||%wt||≤ 0.4|
|Evaporation loss (NOACK)||ASTM D5800||%||≤ 13|
API FA-4 oils are designed to provide enhanced protection against oil A reaction occurring when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. Oxidation is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts, and the presence of water, acids, or solid contaminants. Oxidation leads to increased viscosity and deposit formation., viscosity loss due to shear, and oil aeration as well as protection against catalyst poisoning, particulate filter blocking, engine wear, piston deposits, degradation of low- and high-temperature properties, and soot’ related viscosity increase.
API FA-4 oils are neither interchangeable nor backward compatible with API CK-4, CJ-4, CI-4 with CI-4 PLUS, CI-4, and CH-4 oils. Refer to engine manufacturer recommendations to determine if API FA-4 oils are suitable for use. API FA-4 oils are not recommended for use with fuels having greater than 15 ppm sulfur. For fuels with sulfur contents greater than 15 ppm, refer to engine manufacturer recommendations.
For more information on API FA-4, contact your Lubrizol representative.