a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
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  • Abrasive Wear - A type of wear scenario during which two surfaces in relative motion remove (or “abrade”) particles from each other due to the presence of surface asperities or other particles.
  • Absolute Viscosity - A measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow when an external force is applied. Absolute viscosityA measure of a fluid's resistance to flow when an external force is applied. Absolute viscosity is not impacted by the fluid's density. Also called dynamic viscosity. is not impacted by the fluid’s density. Also called dynamic viscosityA measure of […]
  • ACEA - European Automobile Manufacturers AssociationACEA. The primary automotive standards organization in the European Union. ACEA defines performance specifications for automotive oils, and the "ACEA" acronym is from the French (Association des Constructeurs Européens d’Automobiles). The primary automotive standards organization in the European Union, ACEAEuropean Automobile Manufacturers Association (Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles). The primary automotive standards […]
  • Adhesive Wear - Wear caused by metal-to-metal contact, characterized by local welding and tearing of the surface.
  • American Petroleum Institute - APIAmerican Petroleum Institute. The primary oil and natural gas trade association in the United States. API operates a voluntary licensing and certification program that allows engine oil marketers to use the API Engine Oil Quality Marks if their products meet specific requirements.. The primary oil and natural gas trade association in the United States. API […]
  • American Society for Testing and Materials - ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials. An organization that develops international standards for industry, including test methods, specifications, and best practices. Many tests that certify a lubricant to a specification are overseen by ASTM.. An organization that develops international standards for industry, including test methods, specifications, and best practices. Many tests that certify a lubricant […]
  • Antifoam Agent - An additive used to suppress the foaming tendency of petroleum products in service. Antifoam agents can be a silicone oil to break up surface bubbles or a polymer to decrease the number of small entrained bubbles.
  • Antiwear Additive - Lubricant additives that form thin but tenacious films on highly loaded parts to prevent metal-to-metal contact. Antiwear agents are typically included in a performance additive package.
  • API - American Petroleum InstituteAPI. The primary oil and natural gas trade association in the United States. API operates a voluntary licensing and certification program that allows engine oil marketers to use the API Engine Oil Quality Marks if their products meet specific requirements.. The primary oil and natural gas trade association in the United States. APIAmerican […]
  • Ash - Metallic deposits formed in the combustion chamber and other engine parts during high-temperature operation.
  • ASTM - American Society for Testing and MaterialsASTM. An organization that develops international standards for industry, including test methods, specifications, and best practices. Many tests that certify a lubricant to a specification are overseen by ASTM.. An organization that develops international standards for industry, including test methods, specifications, and best practices. Many tests that certify a lubricant […]
  • ATF - Automatic Transmission FluidATF. A complex fluid used in vehicles with traditional self-shifting "stepped" transmissions. Typically red in color, ATFs have a variety of duties beyond lubrication, including allowing some friction so clutch materials can engage. The specifications for ATFs are OEM-driven, since most OEMs use proprietary frictional materials that have unique requirements.. A complex fluid […]
  • Automatic Transmission Fluid - ATFAutomatic Transmission Fluid. A complex fluid used in vehicles with traditional self-shifting "stepped" transmissions. Typically red in color, ATFs have a variety of duties beyond lubrication, including allowing some friction so clutch materials can engage. The specifications for ATFs are OEM-driven, since most OEMs use proprietary frictional materials that have unique requirements.. A complex fluid […]
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  • Base Oil - The primary or underlying fluid, usually a refined petroleum fraction or a selected synthetic material, into which additives are blended to produce finished lubricants.
  • Blow-by - The passage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines, resulting in fuel dilution and contamination of the crankcase oil.
  • Boundary Lubrication - A lubrication regime characterized by the absence of a full fluid lubricating film between two rubbing surfaces. The potentially damaging contact during boundary lubricationA lubrication regime characterized by the absence of a full fluid lubricating film between two rubbing surfaces. The potentially damaging contact during boundary lubrication occurs under high loads and requires the use […]
  • Bright Stock - A heavy residual lubricant stock with low pour point used in finished blends to provide good bearing film strength, prevent scuffingAbnormal engine wear due to localized welding and fracture. Scuffing can be prevented through the use of antiwear, extreme-pressure, and friction modifier additives., and reduce oil consumption. Bright stockA heavy residual lubricant stock with low […]
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  • Cam - An eccentric shaft used in most internal combustion engines to open and close valves.
  • Carbon Residue - Coked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to high temperatures under controlled conditions.
  • Catalytic Converter - An integral part of vehicle emission control systems since 1975. Oxidizing converters remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) from exhaust gases, while reducing converters control nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissionsMobile sources - Pollutant exhaust gases created by the combustion of fuel. Water and CO2 are not included in this category, but CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons are […]
  • Centistoke - A measurement unit of kinematic viscosityThe measurement of a fluid's resistance to flow under the force of gravity at a specific temperature, usually 40°C or 100°C. of a fluid. One centiStokeA measurement unit of kinematic viscosity of a fluid. One centiStoke equals 0.01 Stokes and is equivalent to one mm2/sec in SI units. equals 0.01 […]
  • Cetane Index - A value calculated from the physical properties of a diesel fuel to predict its Cetane NumberA measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel, as determined in a standard single cylinder test engine, which measures ignition delay compared to primary reference fuels. The higher the Cetane Number, the easier a high-speed, direct-injection engine will […]
  • Cetane Number - A measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel, as determined in a standard single cylinder test engine, which measures ignition delay compared to primary reference fuels. The higher the Cetane NumberA measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel, as determined in a standard single cylinder test engine, which measures ignition delay […]
  • Compression Ratio - The ratio of the volume of combustion space at bottom dead center to that at top dead center in an internal combustion engine.
  • Continuously Variable Transmission - CVTContinuously Variable Transmission. An automatic transmission that replaces conventional gear ratios with a chain or belt and a system that adjusts diameters on either side of two pulleys to generate seamless transitions of speed and torque.. An automatic transmission that replaces conventional gear ratios with a chain or belt and a system that adjusts diameters […]
  • Corrosion Inhibitor - A lubricant additive that protects lubricated metal surfaces from chemical attack by water and other contaminants. Corrosion inhibitors are typically included in a performance additive package.
  • Corrosive Wear - Wear caused by chemical reaction
  • Crown - The top of the piston in an internal combustion engine above the fire ring. The crownThe top of the piston in an internal combustion engine above the fire ring. The crown is exposed to direct flame impingement. is exposed to direct flame impingement.
  • CVT - Continuously Variable TransmissionCVT. An automatic transmission that replaces conventional gear ratios with a chain or belt and a system that adjusts diameters on either side of two pulleys to generate seamless transitions of speed and torque.. An automatic transmission that replaces conventional gear ratios with a chain or belt and a system that adjusts diameters […]
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  • DCT - Dual Clutch TransmissionDCT. An automatic transmission with two concentric shafts and two separate clutches for odd and even gears. The two-shaft design allows another gear ratio to be pre-selected to provide faster and more efficient gear changes.. An automatic transmission with two concentric shafts and two separate clutches for odd and even gears. The two-shaft […]
  • Detergent - A substance added to a fuel or lubricant to keep engine parts clean. In motor oil formulations, the most commonly used detergents are metallic soaps with a reserve of basicity to neutralize acids formed during combustion.
  • Detonation - The uncontrolled burning of the last portion, or end gas, of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder of a spark-ignition engine. DetonationThe uncontrolled burning of the last portion, or end gas, of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder of a spark-ignition engine. Detonation is also known as knock or ping. is also known as knock […]
  • Dilution of Engine Oil - The contamination of crankcase oil by unburned fuel, leading to reduced viscosityA measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosity flows less easily. and flash point. Dilution of engine oilThe contamination of crankcase oil by unburned fuel, leading to reduced viscosity and flash point. Dilution of engine oil may indicate […]
  • Dispersant - An additive that helps keep solid engine oil contaminants in suspension, thus preventing the formation of sludgeA thick, dark residue, normally of mayonnaise consistency, that accumulates on nonmoving engine interior surfaces. Generally removable by wiping unless baked to a carbonaceous consistency, its formation is associated with insolubles overloading of the lubricant. and varnishA thin, insoluble, […]
  • Dual Clutch Transmission - DCTDual Clutch Transmission. An automatic transmission with two concentric shafts and two separate clutches for odd and even gears. The two-shaft design allows another gear ratio to be pre-selected to provide faster and more efficient gear changes.. An automatic transmission with two concentric shafts and two separate clutches for odd and even gears. The two-shaft […]
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  • EGR - Exhaust Gas RecirculationEGR. A system designed to reduce automotive emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). EGRs route exhaust gases into the intake manifold where they dilute the air/fuel mixture and reduce peak combustion temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for NOx to form.. A system designed to reduce automotive emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). EGRs route exhaust […]
  • Emissions - Mobile sources – Pollutant exhaust gases created by the combustion of fuel. Water and CO2 are not included in this category, but CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons are and are thus subject to legislative control. All three are emitted by gasoline engines, while diesel engines also emit particulates that are regulated. Stationary sources – The release […]
  • Engine deposits - The hard or persistent accumulation of sludgeA thick, dark residue, normally of mayonnaise consistency, that accumulates on nonmoving engine interior surfaces. Generally removable by wiping unless baked to a carbonaceous consistency, its formation is associated with insolubles overloading of the lubricant., varnishA thin, insoluble, non-wipeable film occurring on interior engine parts. Varnish can cause sticking […]
  • European Automobile Manufacturers Association - ACEAEuropean Automobile Manufacturers Association (Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles). The primary automotive standards organization in the European Union, ACEA defines performance specifications for automotive lubricants.. The primary automotive standards organization in the European Union. ACEA defines performance specifications for automotive oils, and the “ACEA” acronym is from the French
  • Exhaust Gas Recirculation - EGRExhaust Gas Recirculation. A system designed to reduce automotive emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). EGRs route exhaust gases into the intake manifold where they dilute the air/fuel mixture and reduce peak combustion temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for NOx to form.. A system designed to reduce automotive emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). EGRs route exhaust […]
  • Extreme Pressure agents - An additive that prevents sliding metal surfaces from seizing under extreme pressure conditions by forming a chemical film on the surface of components.
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  • Fatigue - Cracking, flaking, or spalling of a surface due to stresses beyond the endurance limit of the material.
  • Fluid Friction - The resistance that occurs between the molecules of a gas or liquid in motion.
  • Friction - The resistance to motion of one object over another. FrictionThe resistance to motion of one object over another. Friction depends on the smoothness of the contacting surfaces, as well as the force with which they are pressed together. depends on the smoothness of the contacting surfaces, as well as the force with which they are […]
  • Friction Modifier - A lubricant additive that introduces a friction-reducing film between surfaces where mild sliding conditions occur. FrictionThe resistance to motion of one object over another. Friction depends on the smoothness of the contacting surfaces, as well as the force with which they are pressed together. modifiers are typically included in a performance additive package and can […]
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  • HTHS - High Temperature High Shear. A measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow under conditions resembling highly-loaded journal bearings in fired internal combustion engines, typically 1 million s–1 at 150°C.
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  • ILSAC - International Lubricants Standardization and Approval CommitteeILSAC. A collaboration between the American Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA), Chrysler, Ford, GM, and the Japanese Automotive Standards Organization. ILSAC GF- engine oil specifications target fuel economy, emission system protection, and enhanced engine oil robustness.. A collaboration between the American Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA), Chrysler, Ford, GM, and the Japanese […]
  • International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee - ILSACInternational Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee. A collaboration between the American Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA), Chrysler, Ford, GM, and the Japanese Automotive Standards Organization. ILSAC GF- engine oil specifications target fuel economy, emission system protection, and enhanced engine oil robustness.. A collaboration between the American Automobile Manufacturers Association (AAMA), Chrysler, Ford, GM, and the Japanese […]
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  • Japanese Automotive Standards Organization - JASOJapanese Automotive Standards Organization. The primary automotive standards organization in Japan. JASO was created to better address the unique specification needs of Japanese engines.. The primary automotive standards organization in Japan. JASO was created to better address the unique specification needs of Japanese engines.
  • JASO - Japanese Automotive Standards OrganizationJASO. The primary automotive standards organization in Japan. JASO was created to better address the unique specification needs of Japanese engines.. The primary automotive standards organization in Japan. JASOJapanese Automotive Standards Organization. The primary automotive standards organization in Japan. JASO was created to better address the unique specification needs of Japanese engines. […]
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  • Kinematic Viscosity - The measurement of a fluid’s resistance to flow under the force of gravity at a specific temperature, usually 40°C or 100°C.
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  • Low Speed Pre-Ignition - Uncontrolled combustion that takes place in the combustion chamber prior to spark in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. Also known as LSPILow-Speed Pre-Ignition. Uncontrolled combustion that takes place in the combustion chamber prior to spark in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines..
  • LSPI - Low-Speed Pre-Ignition. Uncontrolled combustion that takes place in the combustion chamber prior to spark in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines.
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  • Oxidation - A reaction occurring when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. OxidationA reaction occurring when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. Oxidation is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts, and the presence of water, acids, or solid contaminants. Oxidation leads to increased viscosity and deposit formation. is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts, and the presence of water, acids, or […]
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  • Parc - All the registered vehicles within a particular region. From the French “parcAll the registered vehicles within a particular region. From the French "parc de véhicules," parc means "fleet of vehicles" and is often synonymous with "Fleet" and "Vehicles in Operation" (VIO). de véhicules,” parc means “fleet of vehicles” and is often synonymous with “Fleet” and […]
  • Pitting - A type of wear in the form of surface cavities. PittingA type of wear in the form of surface cavities. Pitting can be related to fatigue, overload, or corrosion. can be related to fatigueCracking, flaking, or spalling of a surface due to stresses beyond the endurance limit of the material., overload, or corrosion.
  • Pour Point Depressant - PPDPour Point Depressant. A lubricant additive that lowers the lowest point at which a lubricant flows so that the lubricant can be used in cold environments. PPDs are typically not included in a performance additive package.. A lubricant additive that lowers the lowest point at which a lubricant flows so that the lubricant can be […]
  • PPD - Pour Point DepressantPPD. A lubricant additive that lowers the lowest point at which a lubricant flows so that the lubricant can be used in cold environments. PPDs are typically not included in a performance additive package.. A lubricant additive that lowers the lowest point at which a lubricant flows so that the lubricant can be […]
  • Preignition - The combustion of the fuel/air mixture in a gasoline engine before the spark plug fires. PreignitionThe combustion of the fuel/air mixture in a gasoline engine before the spark plug fires. Preignition is often caused by incandescent fuel or lubricant deposits in the combustion chamber, and wastes power and may damage the engine. is often caused […]
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  • Scuffing - Abnormal engine wear due to localized welding and fracture. ScuffingAbnormal engine wear due to localized welding and fracture. Scuffing can be prevented through the use of antiwear, extreme-pressure, and friction modifier additives. can be prevented through the use of antiwear, extreme-pressure, and friction modifierA lubricant additive that introduces a friction-reducing film between surfaces where mild […]
  • Shear Stability Index - A measure of an oil’s irreversible viscosityA measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosity flows less easily. loss attributable to the viscosity modifierA lubricant additive, usually a polymer, whose main function is to reduce the tendency of an oil's viscosity to change with temperature. Modern VMs are performance polymers […]
  • Sludge - A thick, dark residue, normally of mayonnaise consistency, that accumulates on nonmoving engine interior surfaces. Generally removable by wiping unless baked to a carbonaceous consistency, its formation is associated with insolubles overloading of the lubricant.
  • Sulphated Ash - A product of the combustion of metals commonly found in detergents. As a lubricant property, sulfated ashMetallic deposits formed in the combustion chamber and other engine parts during high-temperature operation. content is a measure of metal content (usually Zinc, Calcium, and Magnesium) and allows formulators to stay within specified limits in order to minimize the […]
  • Synthetic Lubricant - A lubricating fluid made by chemically reacting materials of a specific chemical composition to produce a compound with planned and predictable properties.
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  • Universal Tractor Transmission Oil - UTTOUniversal Tractor Transmission Oil. A versatile lubricating fluid with multiple uses within a tractor, including the transmission, final drive, wet brake, clutch, and hydraulic system. The universal tractor transmission oil serves all of these uses from a central reservoir.. A versatile lubricating fluid with multiple uses within a tractor, including the transmission, final drive, wet […]
  • UTTO - Universal Tractor Transmission OilUTTO. A versatile lubricating fluid with multiple uses within a tractor, including the transmission, final drive, wet brake, clutch, and hydraulic system. The universal tractor transmission oil serves all of these uses from a central reservoir.. A versatile lubricating fluid with multiple uses within a tractor, including the transmission, final drive, wet […]
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  • Varnish - A thin, insoluble, non-wipeable film occurring on interior engine parts. VarnishA thin, insoluble, non-wipeable film occurring on interior engine parts. Varnish can cause sticking and malfunction of close-clearance moving parts. Varnish is called "lacquer" in diesel engines. can cause sticking and malfunction of close-clearance moving parts. Varnish is called “lacquer” in diesel engines.
  • Viscometer - Any instrument used to measure the viscosityA measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosity flows less easily. of a fluid. Modern lubricants are measured with an array of different viscometers in the lab.
  • Viscosity - A measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosityA measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosity flows less easily. flows less easily.
  • Viscosity Index - VI. The relationship of the viscosityA measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosity flows less easily. of a fluid to its temperature. VI is determined by measuring the kinematic viscosities of an oil at 40°C and 100°C and referencing ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials. An organization that develops […]
  • Viscosity Modifier - A lubricant additive, usually a polymer, whose main function is to reduce the tendency of an oil’s viscosityA measure of a fluid's resistance to flow. A fluid with a higher viscosity flows less easily. to change with temperature. Modern VMs are performance polymers that can provide additional benefits as well.
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  • ZDP - Zinc DithiophosphateZDP or ZDDP. A common antiwear and oxidation inhibitor chemical. ZDP is commonly called "zinc.". A common antiwear and oxidationA reaction occurring when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. Oxidation is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts, and the presence of water, acids, or solid contaminants. Oxidation leads to increased viscosity and deposit formation. inhibitor chemical. […]
  • Zinc Dithiophosphate - ZDPZinc Dithiophosphate. A common antiwear and oxidation inhibitor chemical. ZDP is commonly called "zinc." or ZDDP. A common antiwear and oxidationA reaction occurring when oxygen attacks petroleum fluids. Oxidation is accelerated by heat, light, metal catalysts, and the presence of water, acids, or solid contaminants. Oxidation leads to increased viscosity and deposit formation. inhibitor chemical. […]